Barack Obama advocates for an Institutional social welfare policy. Institutional social welfare is a system where everyone is protected and supported by the government and community to enable them to be self-sufficient. This gives everyone equal opportunity enabling the low-income earners access services they would otherwise not get. These are government-funded social services like the health care policy. Obama has sought to shore up support with the immense middle by issuing populist calls for levy increases on the affluent and big corporations. This would help fund the health care policy and ensure that the low lever earners can get medical services just like the others. Institutional concept uses the need factor and not the cause of need. The policy according to Obama intends to be a preventive measure. These is because it anticipates that a certain problem will occurs for example, low income earners will need medical care and the government will support them to acquire the service which will be a long term service .
B. Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney believes the residual concept is the best for United States. He views assistance by the government as the last option after all avenues have been exhausted. According to Romney it should be a measure that is temporary, which should be taken after crucial evidence of need have been given and evaluated. Romney is not an activist of increasing taxes for the wealthy people to assist the poor; he believes they should first deplete assistance from the family, market economy or religious institutions before turning to the Government. The service should be short term and can be withdrawn when the person is able to support his/her family. RA memo for Health and Human Services (HHS) from Romney inviting states to apply for waivers “to allow states to test alternative and innovative strategies, policies, and procedures that are designed to improve employment for needy families”. This was for those families to stop depending on government and be independent.